One of the most important tasks that comes with having a pool is keeping the pool water properly balanced.

Many factors may cause an imbalance in the pool water. Some of which are the frequency of using the pool, weather conditions, debris, algae, the sanitizers being used for the pool, as well as the source of fresh water.

The following factors need to be observed for the effect on water balance:


When using Aqua Care Chemicals® 70% chlorine, pH of your pool increases to 9.5 ppm which would need Aqua Care Chemicals® Dry Acid to reduce its pH while Aqua Care Chemicals® 90% Chlorine decreases pH of your pool up to 1 ppm which would need Sodium Carbonate to increase the pH to ideal range which is 7.2 – 7.6

High pH ReadingsLow pH Readings
Poor sanitizer efficiency Poor sanitizer efficiency
Cloudy water Etched or stained plaster
Shorter filter runs Corroded metals/equipment
Scale formation Skin and eye irritation
Skin and eye irritation Destruction of total alkalinity

Incorrect pH will reduce the effectiveness of the chlorine in your swimming pool. Remember to check the pH at least twice a week.

Use your #78HR Test Kit 4 in 1

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Total alkalinity (TA) is the measure of the capacity of water to resist changes in pH, which are usually caused by rainfall or wastewater. TA is an essential factor that should be considered for optimal water conditions. Before testing and adjusting pH levels, TA should be examined and corrected.

Using Aquacare Chemicasl® calcium hypochlorite-based primary sanitizers, the best possible range for TA in pools is 60-120 ppm. The recommended range for pools using trchlor-based primary sanitizers such as Aquacare Chemicals® Trichloroicosyanuric Acid is 80-120ppm.

Corrosion and damage to pool installations and equipment may occur if the TA is bellow 60ppm as the pH will not stay in the proper range. Also, cloudy water or scale may occur in the pool if the TA is above 120ppm.

NOTE: Cyanuric acid (a stabilizer) will interfere with the test for total alkalinity. Therefore, it is necessary to compensate for this interference. For pools with properly maintained pH and a cyanuric acid level above 50 ppm, the correction formula is: Tested Total Alkalinity Result - 1/3 Cyanuric Acid Reading = TRUE TOTAL ALKALINITY. In other words, subtract one-third of the cyanuric acid reading from the tested total alkalinity reading to compensate for the interference.

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Natural hardness is present in all water, but differs by geographic region and by its source. Calcium hardness (CH) is the amount of dissolved calcium in the pool water. To prevent problems on the surface or circulation system of the pool, it is important to regularly test the CH levels.

CH above 1,000ppm may cause cloudiness and scale on pool surfaces and fittings, if left for a long period of time. On the other hand, CH below 200ppm may cause corrosion in pool equipment. Also, pitting or etching problems may occur in plaster pools.

The CH may be tested and measured using #1200 Hardness Test Kit. The optimal range for calcium hardness is 200-500 ppm. However, 1,000ppm is still acceptable.

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Total dissolved solids (TDS) refers to the overall amount of dissolved material found in pool water. These are solids dissolved in the water, but are unable to be filtered out. Over time, TDS levels naturally increases as more water evaporates and more chemicals are infused in the pool water.

Although the TDS concentration has little effect on water balance, above a certain level problems may occur with water clarity and taste.

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Water temperature only has a minimal effect on water balance. However, when water temperatures remain at 90°F, formation of scale may rapidly occur. Testing the water regularly when it is consistently at 90°F and above may prevent the formation of scales.

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High metal levels may stain the pool surfaces and cause high sanitizer use. An imbalance in the pool water may also cause unwanted metals to be present.

• Unwanted metals may result from the source water
• Unwanted metals may be caused by copper-based algaecides or make-up water
• Metals from pool heater cores or metallic plumbing may be stripped off by corrosive water

Ideally, no metals should be detected in your pool water at any time.

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It is unlikely that corrosion or scale deposits will occur in pool water when all these factors are within the ideal ranges. Properly balanced water also yield utmost bather comfort.

Summary of recommended ranges for water balance factors

Chlorine (FAC) 1–4 ppm
pH 7.2 – 7.6
Total Alkalinity 60–120 ppm (depending on primary sanitizer)
Calcium Hardness 200-500 (up to 1000 ppm is acceptable)
Total Dissolved Solids up to 2000 ppm
Cyanuric Acid (Stabilizer) 20–50 ppm
Copper 0 ppm
Iron 0 ppm